Proxies are the swiss army knifes of object adaptation. They introduce a level of indirection to intercept select operations on a target object and divert them as method calls to a handler. Proxies are often used as wrappers to implement access control via membranes or to enforce adherence to a contract.
One important question in the design of a proxy API is whether a proxy object has its own identity. For some applications, in particular those related to security, this choice is advantageous whereas other applications, in particular contract systems, require transparency, that is, proxies that compare equal to their target objects.
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